The minimal encompasses writers as diverse as: Hemingway, Beckett, Joyce Carol Oates, Margaret Atwood, George Saunders, even, I'd say, Faulkner (compared to Joyce, whom he loved, a genuine minimalist). These writers tend to be concerned with morality and (perhaps as a knock-on effect) realism in one form or another.
The maximal encompasses writers I usually like more. They tend to write purpler and more stylish prose and have more fanciful ideas. They tend to be more concerned with style and (and this is where it goes D&D-relevant) games.
Roughly: in their fiction, the maximalists are interested in how the world works --i.e. the rules-- whereas the minimalists are concerned with shoving how it should work up against how it does. The maximalist has methods, the minimalist has messages.
Let's take a look at games in the main current of stylish and maximal literature...
Lewis Carroll: Cards, then chess pieces. There's a chess problem included in Looking Glass.
Robert Louis Stevenson: invented and played a wargame in his attic--or someone's. (Maximalist credentials maybe not totally intact, but important to Nabokov, prince of maximalists and to science fiction and fantasy authors, the best of whom are all maximalists).
H.G. Wells: wrote Little Wars. When he was good, it was because of style...
T.S. Eliot: A Game of Chess
Nabokov: I suppose I am especially susceptible to the magic of games. In my chess sessions with Gaston I saw the board as a square pool of limpid water with rare shells and stratagems rosily visible upon the smooth tessellated bottom, which to my confused adversary was all ooze and squid-cloud.
Julio Cortazar: He'd turn a novel into a game. And, yeah, chess everywhere just for starters.
Borges: Honestly I don't read enough Spanish to say whether he's really a stylist or a maximalist, but his fans in the english speaking world are. And his stories are gamey as fuck: Garden of Forking Paths, Library of Babel.
Georges Perec: A Void and many other works are games in addition to being books. And more chess.
Donald Barthelme: a clear heir to the fluff if not the crunch of Perec and the Oulipians.
Thomas Pynchon: Games everywhere in Pynchon, but, being the maximummest, so is everything else. Howeve: check out by how far the references to "chess" and "cause and effect" outnumber everything else under "C" in Gravity's Ranbow.
David Foster Wallace: Eschaton. (Incidentally: DFW was rare in being a maximalist writer who was obsessed with morality. He killed himself. )
(Also in the small category of moralizing maximalists is Anthony Burgess, who disowned his best novel. And very gamey.)
Martin Amis: Wrote a strategy guide to Space Invaders before he got famous. And games are all over The Information and London Fields is rich in gamelike thinking on Nicola's part.
China Mieville: Another (half the time) maximalist (half the time) interested in morality. And a man who knows his way around games.
Dorothy Parker and Hunter S Thompson--who both rock, but both suffer a chronic lack of commitment--are somewhere in the middle, I'd say. They liked life as a game, but had only had an intermittent interest in rules. I guess I'd put George Saunders in with this "likes fun, but not exactly playful" crowd.
Vonnegut is a minimalist who's into games. There goes my thesis.
Now here's the part where my prof tells me to go research ardent maximalists like James Joyce, William S Burroughs, Melville, and M John Harrison's relation to gaming and chase down this rumor about the Bronte sisters' wargame and actually get around to reading Tristram Shandy, which has a wargamer in it. But I'm lazy and have a pretty painting to make and little wars to run.